At·tá ben is' tír, ní·eiprimm a hainm, maidid eissi a deilm amal chloich a tailm. 1 at·tá H1 3 sg 'be' (cf. modern Ir tá), here with existential sense, 'there is'—ben nom sg 'woman' (cf. modern Ir bean, Gk γυνή, Eng queen)—is' = isin = i 'in' + definite article—tír neut s dat 'land, … Continue reading An Old Irish fart poem
Epic poetry is everywhere. The Great Seal of the United States, found (among other places) on the back of the one-dollar bill, contains two Latin mottoes on its reverse, which is on the left side of the bill. The seal was officially adopted by the U.S. government in 1782. I had never looked into these … Continue reading The Great Seal
People of all walks of life in Ancient Greek civilization(s) were fond of predicting the future by any means necessary. Sometimes this was a structured, purposeful process where a knowledgeable seer would set up an experiment, as it were, and use animal entrails or the flights of birds or random lines of literature. But sometimes … Continue reading An ominous sneeze (Od. 17.534–547)
In his most famous work, Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight Chapters"), the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini laid out his analysis of Sanskrit grammar in a comprehensive and impressively compact manner, outlining rules for everything from noun compounding to accentuation to sandhi. In sections dealing with individual sounds, the author is able to refer to whole groups of specific vowels … Continue reading The “Shiva Sutras”
J.R.R. Tolkien's adventures in language creation are well known and do not need elaboration here. But, in addition to his conlanging projects, he also composed an original 18-line poem in the Gothic language, the best-attested member of the extinct East Germanic language family. The bulk of the Gothic corpus is the Codex Argenteus, which contains … Continue reading Bagmē Blōma “Flower of the Trees”: Tolkien’s Gothic poem
Many Indo-European languages exhibit a word for 'human being' that is built off of PIE *dʰéɡ́ʰom- 'earth, ground.' Celtic *gdonyo- (Irish duine 'person,' Welsh dyn 'man') < *dʰɡ́ʰom-yo- Germanic *guman- 'man' (Old English guma 'man,' English [bride]groom; Old High German gomo 'man,' German [Bräuti]gam) < *dʰɡ́ʰm̥-mon- Latin homō, -minis 'person' < *dʰɡ́ʰm-on- (whence also hūmānus) Phrygian ζεμελως 'man … Continue reading An ancient word for ‘earthling’?
Please forgive my frivolous title. For some time now I have semi-jocularly been saying that the Cyrillic alphabet (particularly its Russian incarnation), what with its innate capability of marking palatalization, would be better suited to write Irish and Scottish Gaelic than the Latin alphabet. I will look at Irish alone, although most of this has … Continue reading Дп Updдтэ foг Iгish Sрэlliпg?