An Old Irish fart poem

At·tá ben is' tír, ní·eiprimm a hainm, maidid eissi a deilm amal chloich a tailm. 1   at·tá H1 3 sg 'be' (cf. modern Ir tá), here with existential sense, 'there is'—ben nom sg 'woman' (cf. modern Ir bean, Gk γυνή, Eng queen)—is' = isin = i 'in' + definite article—tír neut s dat 'land, … Continue reading An Old Irish fart poem


The “Shiva Sutras”

In his most famous work, Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight Chapters"), the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini laid out his analysis of Sanskrit grammar in a comprehensive and impressively compact manner, outlining rules for everything from noun compounding to accentuation to sandhi. In sections dealing with individual sounds, the author is able to refer to whole groups of specific vowels … Continue reading The “Shiva Sutras”