J.R.R. Tolkien's adventures in language creation are well known and do not need elaboration here. But, in addition to his conlanging projects, he also composed an original 18-line poem in the Gothic language, the best-attested member of the extinct East Germanic language family. The bulk of the Gothic corpus is the Codex Argenteus, which contains … Continue reading Bagmē Blōma “Flower of the Trees”: Tolkien’s Gothic poem
There is an 8th-century Latin-German glossary (named Abrogans after its initial entry) that presents a large number of Latin words along with their Old High German meanings. The vocabulary is largely religious and/or biblical, but there are such occasional flights of whimsy as the following: cit · Inprinnit · Crapula · ummazzi · Ebrietaſ · … Continue reading Some Old High German vocabulary for ‘intoxication’
Our word cannabis—as in the scientific names for Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica—comes ultimately from Greek ἡ κάνναβις (or, depending on whom you read, ἡ κανναβίς with different accentuation). Herodotus mentions the plant— ἔστι δέ σφι κάνναβις φυομένη ἐν τῇ χώρῃ πλὴν παχύτητος καὶ μεγάθεος τῷ λίνῳ ἐμφερεστάτη. [The Scythians] have kánnabis growing in the … Continue reading Hemp and cannabis are the same word
Many Indo-European languages exhibit a word for 'human being' that is built off of PIE *dʰéɡ́ʰom- 'earth, ground.' Celtic *gdonyo- (Irish duine 'person,' Welsh dyn 'man') < *dʰɡ́ʰom-yo- Germanic *guman- 'man' (Old English guma 'man,' English [bride]groom; Old High German gomo 'man,' German [Bräuti]gam) < *dʰɡ́ʰm̥-mon- Latin homō, -minis 'person' < *dʰɡ́ʰm-on- (whence also hūmānus) Phrygian ζεμελως 'man … Continue reading An ancient word for ‘earthling’?
As the defining characteristic of this creature is its single eye, for a long time it was taken for granted that cyclops—Greek κύκλωψ—was an old compound meaning 'round-eye': *kʷékʷl-h3ōkʷ-s = *kʷékʷlo- + *h3ōkʷ- *kʷékʷlo- 'circle, ring' (cf. κύκλος; English wheel) *h3ōkʷ- 'face, eye' (cf. ὄψομαι 'see (fut.)') In more recent years another, perhaps better, etymology … Continue reading Etymology: cyclops
The Irish word fuinneog /ˈfɪnʲːoːg/ 'window (fem.)'—uinneig in Scottish Gaelic; fuinneoig in the Irish of Cois Fharraige where the dative singular has been assumed as the dictionary form for ā-stem nouns—may appear obscure in origin. However, it has a neat etymology as an old loanword from Germanic. The word is from Old Norse vindauga 'window … Continue reading Etymology: Irish fuinneog ‘window’
Please forgive my frivolous title. For some time now I have semi-jocularly been saying that the Cyrillic alphabet (particularly its Russian incarnation), what with its innate capability of marking palatalization, would be better suited to write Irish and Scottish Gaelic than the Latin alphabet. I will look at Irish alone, although most of this has … Continue reading Дп Updдтэ foг Iгish Sрэlliпg?