Muspilli Part VI (73-90)

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So daz himilisca horn kilutit uuirdit,
enti sih der suanari    ana den sind arheuit
der dar suannan scal    toten enti lepenten, 75
denne heuit sih mit imo    herio meista,
daz ist allaz so pald,    daz imo nioman kipagan ni mak.
denne uerit er ze deru mahalsteti,    deru dar kimarchot ist:
dar uuirdit diu suona, dia man dar io sageta.
denne uarant engila    uper dio marha, 80
uuechant deota,    uuissant ze dinge.
denne scal manno gilih    fona deru moltu arsten,
lossan sih ar dero leuuo uazzon:    scal imo auar sin lip piqueman,
daz er sin reht allaz    kirahhon muozzi,
enti imo after sinen tatin    arteilit uuerde. 85
denne der gisizzit,    der dar suonnan scal
enti arteillan scal    toten enti quekkhen,
denne stet dar umpi    engilo menigi,
guotero gomono:    gart ist so mihhil:
dara quimit ze deru rihtungu so uilo    dia dar ar resti arstent. 90

73   On first glance, the alliteration scheme here appears to be h | h || l | w, which violates the requirement of an alliterating sound in the second half-line; but since kilutit represents historical *hl- it is at least conceivable that this word used to alliterate in an older period of the language’s history. (While clusters like */hl/ usually alliterate with identical clusters and not with single sounds, exceptions can easily be found, e.g. Beowulf l. 52 hæleð under heofenum, hwa þæm hlæste onfeng.)mdash;So temporal ‘when’—kilutit (1 gi-hlūten) ‘sounded’ < *hlūdaz ‘loud’ < PIE *ḱlew- ‘hear,’ cf. Greek κλέ(ϝ)ω ‘hear, obey’; Russian слушать ‘to listen’; Sanskrit śṛṇoti ‘hears’; Old Irish ro∙cluinethar ‘hears’

74   suanari (masc. ja) ‘judge, conciliator’ = suona (cf. l. 7) + the agentive ending āri < *-ārijaz, which was borrowed from Latin ārius

75   This line does not alliterate. Take the whole line in apposition to l. 74 der suanarisuannan (1 suonen) ‘to judge’—toten enti lepenten are dative plural objects of suannan

76   herio (masc. ja genitive plural) ‘armies, hosts’—meista (neut. sg.) ‘greatest,’ superlative of mihhil; note the n-declension to imply definiteness: ‘the greatest of hosts’ i.e. ‘the greatest host’

77   pald ‘bold, courageous’; the antecedent of daz is l. 76 herio meistakipagan = the same as l. 6 pagan but with the prefix gi- implying perfectivity

78   deru (fem. sg. dative relative pronoun) the verb kimarchot is impersonal here, with a dative object—kimarchot (2 gi-markōn) ‘marked off’

79   man … sageta should probably be translated as a passive—io (adverb) here = ‘once, in the past’

81   Note the twofold alliteration in this line: w | þ || w | þdeota has been translated as ‘the dead,’ but both the d and e make this problematic; a better reading is perhaps (fem. ō diota) ‘the people’ < *þeudō < PIE *tewtéh2uuechant (1 uuekken) ‘wake’——uuissant (1 uuīsen) ‘guide, lead, summon’—dinge here = ‘court of (divine) law’

82   gilih (masc. sg.), like l. 32 kilihaz, has the meaning ‘each, every’—moltu (fem. ō molta) ‘earth, dust,’ cf. OE molde ‘earth’ > moldarsten (ir-stēn) ‘to stand up, arise’

83   lossan (1 lōsen) ‘to release, free’—ar (preposition) ‘out of’—leuuo (masc. wa genitive plural) ‘graves’ < *hlaiwaz, possibly the first element of Hlewagastizuazzon (fem. ō dative plural) ‘burdens’—auar here read as ‘moreover’—lip (masc./neut. a) ‘life’ but here = ‘body,’ cf. Ger. Leib

84   daz ‘so that’—sin reht here = ‘his case, his plea’—kirahhon (2 gi-rahhōn) ‘to tell, recount,’ related to rahhamuozzi (muozan 3sg present optative) ‘might be able’

85   after (preposition) ‘according to’—tatin (fem. i tāt) ‘deeds’—arteilit (1 ir-teilen past participle) ‘judged’ is impersonal with dative object imo

86   denne ‘when (relative),’ looks ahead to l. 88 denne ‘then’—der … der are a correlative pair; the second der is the relative pronoun—gisizzit (V gi-sizzen) ‘sits’

87   quekkhen (quek masc. dative plural) ‘alive,’ here substantivized = ‘the living’; cf. Ger. Quecksilber lit. ‘living silver’ i.e. ‘moving silver’

88   dar umpi ‘thereabout’ = ‘all around’—menigi (fem. īn) ‘multitude, crowd,’ cf. Ger. Menge

89   gomono (masc. n genitive plural) ‘men’; take this in apposition to engilo; OHG goma (cf. Latin homō, Irish duine) has obviously lost its historical semantics < PIE *dʰģʰom- ‘earth’; its only modern reflex is the second half of Bräutigam ‘bridegroom’ < *brūdi-guman- (the English bridegroom has acquired an r on analogy to an unrelated word)—gart (masc. a) ‘yard, circle,’ here = ‘choir’ < *gardaz, cf. yard

90   rihtungu (fem. ō rihtunga) ‘court, tribunal’—resti (fem. īn) ‘repose, peace, resting-place’

When the heavenly horn is sounded,
and the judge rises onto the way
who shall then judge the dead and the living, 75
there arises together with him the greatest army,
which is so bold that no one is able to fight against it.
Then he goes to the courtplace, which is marked out there;
then the judgement transpires that was once foretold.
Then angels will come over the land, 80
wake the people, summon them to the court.
Then every person shall rise up out of the ground,
loosen himself from the burdens of the graves; moreover, his body will come to him,
so that he might plead his whole case,
and that he might be judged according to his deeds. 85
When he sits, the one who shall then decide
and shall judge the dead and the living,
then a crowd of angels will stand all around,
(a crowd) of good people; the choir is so great.
Then so many come to the trial, those who rise up out of their resting-place. 90

Go to Part VII


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